How To - Citric Acid Cycle

The citric acid cycle is one of the central logistical hub in our metabolism. It provides oxidative breakdown for organic substances, energy by releasing CO2 and H2O from Acetyl-CoA and so on.


There are 10 basic steps to the cycle and its goal is to catalyze the condensation of Oxalacetate to Citrate.

I will list the intermediates of this reaction and their respective enzymes, as well as their components:

Citrate + Aconitase -> cis-Aconitate  (H20)

cis-Aconitate + Aconitase -> Isocitrate  (H20)

Isocitrate + Isocitrate-dehydrogenase -> Oxalsuccinate  (NAD+, NADH)

Oxalsuccinate + Isocitrate-dehydrogenase -> Alpha-ketoglutaric-acid  (CO2)

Alpha-ketoglutaric-acid + alpha-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex -> Succinyl-CoA  (CoA, NAD+, CO2, NADH/H+)

Succinyl-CoA + Succinyl-CoA-Synthase -> Succinate (GDP, ADP, GTP, ATP)

Succinate + Succinate-dehydrogenase -> Fumarate  (FAD, FADH2)

Fumarate + Fumarase -> Malate  (H2O)

Malate + Malate-dehydrogenase -> Oxalacetate  (NAD+, NADH)

Oxalacetate + Citrate-synthase -> Citrate  (H2O)


Probably just sit down for 20 minutes and repeat this muttering to yourself, biochem is after all, vomit knowledge in the exam ._.

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