The weary traveler should never go without:
water, a good book, a plan
I am in the finishing motions of my Bsc. of science in Bioinformatics, using this blog to share my own experiences with life science and the courses I take.
I post random texts about travel and entertainment
Avengers 2 - Age of Ultron
When I checked my newsfeed this morning I basically lost my shit waking up - the official trailer for next years sequel to Marvel's The Avengers has been leaked!!!
In this quick post I try to explain the basics of the Cock-Younger-Kasami (CYK) Algorithm to you. This shouldn't take more than 15min for you to understand, since I am terrible at logic and math related studies - if I could do it so can you :D
The CYK is a theoretical construct that can be used to find context free languages by feeding grammar and its production rules into a table and see wether a word from the language you wish to identify, matches up with these rules. To make this process run smooth, the production rules must be formatted in such way that it matches Chomsky Normal Form (CNF) standards;
on the left hand side of a production rule stands a non-terminal symbol (a variable) on the right hand side of a production rule there can be maximal 2 non-terminals or 1 terminal symbol (a symbol that represents a constant value) but never non-terminals and terminals mixed For my course I worked through an example step by step, we started out with 3 production rules:
The citric acid cycle is one of the central logistical hub in our metabolism. It provides oxidative breakdown for organic substances, energy by releasing CO2 and H2O from Acetyl-CoA and so on.
There are 10 basic steps to the cycle and its goal is to catalyze the condensation of Oxalacetate to Citrate. I will list the intermediates of this reaction and their respective enzymes, as well as their components: Citrate + Aconitase -> cis-Aconitate (H20) cis-Aconitate + Aconitase -> Isocitrate(H20) Isocitrate + Isocitrate-dehydrogenase -> Oxalsuccinate (NAD+, NADH) Oxalsuccinate + Isocitrate-dehydrogenase -> Alpha-ketoglutaric-acid (CO2) Alpha-ketoglutaric-acid + alpha-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex -> Succinyl-CoA (CoA, NAD+, CO2, NADH/H+) Succinyl-CoA + Succinyl-CoA-Synthase -> Succinate (GDP, ADP, GTP, ATP) Succinate + Succinate-dehydrogenase -> Fumarate (FAD, FADH2) Fumarate + Fumarase -> Malate (H2O) Malate + Malate-dehydrogenase -> Oxalacetate (NAD+, NADH) Oxa…
We are starting into a new semester and that means I am getting into Biochemistry II with you guys. Main Topic this semester will be the metabolism and from experience I can say, the most difficult part is to remember all the different steps in the many metabolic cycles our body needs to stay functioning.
Glycolysis happens generally in 10 steps and is the process of breaking down glucose into smaller sugars
The reaction itself takes place in the cytosol and after investing 2 ATP you get 4 ATP and 2 NADH
First Step: Phosphorylation of Glucose Enzymes: Hexokinase aka Glucokinase Components: Glucose, ATP
Hexokinase catalyses under exclusion of water the two components glucose + ATP , the product is now negatively charged and therefor caught in the cytosol
Second Step: Isomerization Enzymes: Glucosephosphate-Isomerase Components: Glucose-6-Phosphate
This reaction is essential for step four, because only from fructose you can derive two C3-molecules. Without isomerization, we would get a 2C-molecule …